Jesus Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery, Lorenzo Lotto (1528)


The claim that God has the “form, organs, operations, and characteristics” of human nature.1 Also known as Audianism.


The belief in a good principle and an evil principle and that the good created the spiritual world and that the evil created the material world.1


The claim that salvation comes by way of knowledge. It has many derivatives such as Priscillianism, Naassenism, Sethianism, Valentinianism, Basilideanism and Ophitism.1


The claim that God and the world are one. This claim was revived again in the 18th century.1

2nd Century

The claim that its followers have regained the Original Innocence of Adam; that, on one extreme, they are released from the moral law, and on the other, that they must rid themselves of carnal desires; that marriage should be rejected and worship must be done naked.1

2nd century

The claim that it was only an illusion that Christ was born, lived, had a body and suffered death.1

2nd century

The claim that the violence of the God of the Old Testament could not be reconciled with the mercy of the God of the New Testament, that there were actually two gods, one evil, one good, and that consequently Christianity cannot be associated with Judaism or anything related to it. Because of its view that the God of the Old Testament was evil, all matter and flesh, which he created, was also evil. Therefore, the heresy further rejected the idea of the resurrection of the body, that Christ incarnated in the flesh and that Christ would come again. It also rejected marriage.1

2nd century

The claim that God the Father and God the Son are one person acting in two modes.1 Also known as Modalism.

2nd century

The claim that the teachings of Montanus were above that of the Church and that Montanus was the Paraclete promised by Christ.1 Also known as Cataphrygianism and Pepuzianism.

2nd century

The claim that God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit are one person acting through three “modes, aspects, energies, phases, or offices”.1

3rd century

The claim that the soul died with the body, but that both would be revived on the Last Day.1

3rd century

The claim that Christ was not God but was created by God, and that Christ was everything but divine.1

3rd century

A religion based on Dualism. It produced the heretical sects of the Albigenses, Henricians, Bagnolenses and Concorrezenses.1

3rd century

The Dualist derived religion that synthesized the current religious beliefs of its day.1

3rd century

The claim that because God the Father was the same person as God the Son (which is false; see Monarchianism), the Father suffered and died on the cross.1

3rd century

The claim that Jesus was only a human.1

4th century

The claim that Christ had a human body and human soul, but no human rational mind, that place being taken by the Son of God.1

4th century

A Donatist derived sect that violently enforced Donatism, at first without the use of swords, but thereafter with all kinds of weapons. They would not kill, but would savagely wound their opponents and leave them to die and would threaten death to anyone who would not kill them at their request. They sought suicide as a form of martyrdom.1

4th century

The claim that Mary, the Mother of God, was herself divine and worthy of adoration and worship.1

4th century

The claim that only the sinless could administer the sacraments.1

4th century

A protest (related to Bishop Lucifer of Cagliari) against the Church’s declaration that Arians who had renounced their heresy could return to the Church and that bishops who worked with heretics under compulsion should not be disturbed.1

4th century

The claim that the Holy Spirit was not divine.1 Also known as Pneumatomachians.

4th century

A branch of Monarchianians who believed that Melchisedech was an incarnation of God the Son.1

4th century

The claim that the sacraments are powerless, that the only form of spiritual power is prayer, that each person (even Christ) was filled with demons that could only be expelled via prayer, and that by prayer, one could be filled with the Holy Spirit, unite with God and become untroubled by any of their passions.1 Also known as Euchites.

5th century

The claim that all Jewish Christians must be circumcised and adhere to the Mosaic Law, that Jesus was not God, but an angel or man, that the virgin birth never occurred, that St. Paul was a false apostle, and that all Gospels must be rejected accept for the Gospel of St. Matthew.1

5th century

The claim that Christ had only one nature and that His human nature was fully absorbed into His divine nature.1 Also known as Monophysitism.

5th century

The claim that the Blessed Mother gave birth only to the human nature of Christ and that only the human nature of Christ was crucified.1

5th century

The claim that we are born morally neutral, never inheriting Original Sin from Adam’s sin and never inheriting righteousness by Christ’s death; rather we become sinful by the community we are born into and we become righteous by imitating Christ; that we can achieve heaven by our own powers without God’s grace, but that God’s grace merely makes the task easier.1

5th century

A modified form of Pelagianism formed after St. Augustine refuted Pelagianism; the claim that, once we enter the state of grace, we can reach God by our own power without any further grace required.1

6th century

The claim that there are three substances in God, instead of one.1

7th century

The claim that Christ had only one will (Divine) instead of two (human and Divine).1

8th century

The claim that the man Jesus was adopted by God the Father.1 Also known as Dynamists.

8th century

The claim that it is wrong to venerate images and statues of holy people.1

8th century

An Dualist derived belief that rejected the Old Testament and the epistles of St. Peter; they rejected the Incarnation of the Son of God, claimed that Christ was an angel, that his mother was Jerusalem, that His work was only in teaching, and that believing in Him saves men from judgement; they believed that baptism and the Eucharist are really about hearing the Word of God; they honored only the Gospel and not the Cross; they were Iconoclasts; they claimed all ecclesiastical hierarchy, sacraments and rituals are bad, and that it was lawful to deny their real beliefs in the face of persecution.1

10th century

Revival of Manichaeism.1

Free Spiritism
13th century

Revival of Adamitism.1

13th century

The teachings of the Waldenses that contradict Church doctrine; including denial of purgatory, indulgences, and prayers for the dead, the denunciation of all lies, oaths, killing, war and the death penalty and permission to illegitimately divorce to go about preaching and living a life of poverty, among others.1 Also known as Vaudoism.

16th century

The claim that Christians are exempt from the moral law; a logical conclusion to the Protestant notion of salvation by faith alone in that if good works do not contribute to salvation, evil works do not hinder from salvation.1

16th century

The claim that the Bible and the reader’s interpretation of it is the sole source of faith, practice and instruction, that any doctrine not explicitly mentioned in the Bible should be rejected, and that a Christian is justified by their faith alone with no merit granted in doing good works.1 This leads to the rejection of:

  • Seeking assistance from Our Blessed Mother and the saints
  • The primacy of the papal office and the hierarchy of the Catholic Church
  • The value of indulgences
  • The value of the Sacraments (except for Baptism and the Eucharist)
  • The dogma of transubstantiation and the Sacrifice of the Mass
  • Praying for the dearly departed
  • Celibacy among clergy
  • The monastic system

17th century

The claim that papal authority was subject to government powers, the general council of bishops, and the canons and customs of local churches.1

17th century

The claim that man’s free will has no effect on his salvation or damnation, and that God has pre-selected who will be saved and who will be damned. If God has given a person grace, he will be saved. If God denies a person grace, he will be damned.1

17th century

The claim that the Church was subject to the State.1

17th century

The claim that the highest form of spirituality is attained when the mind and will are inactive, that any form of human activity in contemplation or worship hinders union with God.1

18th cenutry

The claim that the keys to the Kingdom of God were granted to the whole Church and not the papal office or the Holy See and that the pope is not infallible in matters of dogma and is subject to the decision of ecumenical councils.1

19th century

The claim that the Church should have no influence on public policy and that it should instead adapt to the culture.1

Jehovah’s Witnesses
19th century

A religion founded by Charles Taze Russell that denied the Holy Trinity, equated Christ with St. Michael, claimed that hell does not exist but that the souls of the damned are destroyed, and that made multiple failed predictions about the end of the world.1

19th century

The claim that Catholic dogma can be revised.1

19th century

A religion founded by Joseph Smith that denied the unity of God and that claimed that there are three gods, that God the Father is a glorified man living on a planet close to a star called Kolob, that Christ is only half God and half man, and that man can become gods of their own world after perfection.1

19th century

The claim, based on ancient forms of necromancy, that the living are permitted to communicate with the dead and that the revelation that comes this communication can lead to a religion that will unite all religions under one banner.1

Prosperity Theology
20th century

The claim that God always rewards believers with a prosperous life.1

Santa Muerte
20th century

A satanic death cult disguised as a Catholic devotion to a female saint associated with death that preaches violence, hatred and revenge. 1, 2